Main Article Content
Aim: The effect of storage containers on the microbial load of domestic water from three sources treated with Moringa oleifera and Citrullus lanatus seed powders in Lekwesi, Abia State was assessed.
Study Design: The jar test method was used for the treatments. One gram (1.0g) each of the plant seed (Moringa oleifera and water melon seeds) was weighed and was added separately into 1000 ml of water samples in the different storage containers (clay lined pots, iron/steel tanks and polypyrene plastic drums, respectively). The mixture was stirred rapidly for 3 minutes and allowed to stand undisturbed for 1 hour, after which the top water was decanted.
Place and Duration of Study: Advanced Research Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Gregory University Uturu, from May to July, 2018.
Methodology: Tenfold serial dilutions was used for processing of all the water samples, after which the volume of exactly 0.5ml of the water sample was planted on the media using the spread plate method and incubated appropriately and other standard microbiological methods were employed to determine microbial loads.
Results: The river water samples had the highest microbial load of 1.2x103-2.0x108cfu/ml and were reduced to 1.8x107cfu/ml and 1.8x108cfu/ml by M. oleifera and C. lanatus seed powders after an hour of storage respectively. The well water samples had the least microbial counts of 0.9 x101-1.2 x104 cfu/ml, and were reduced to 0.5x101cfu/ml and 5.9 x103cfu/ml by M. oleifera and C. lanatus seed powders respectively. The potential pathogenic bacteria (TPPB) were reduced to 3.0 x102cfu/ml by M. oleifera, while C. lanatus was unable to reduce the TPPB after an hour. The microbial load decreased constantly within 24h in the various storage containers (steel, clay and plastic), but increased steadily from 72h to the 336h of post storage. The clay-lined and iron-steel pots maintained the same microbial counts after 4h post storage, but differed significantly after 24h, while the polypyrene plastic drum had the highest microbial count. There was absence of TPPB and Total Faecal Coliform Count (TFCC) in the well water samples after the treatment with M. oleifera.
Conclusion: M. oleifera was found to be a better water treatment than C. lanatus, while the clay-lined pot served as the best domestic water storage container.
Eze VC, Ananso JD. Assessment of water purification potential of Moringa Oleifera Seeds. International Journal of Microbiology and Application. 2014;1(2): 23-30.
Ida B. Coagulant protein from plant materials potential treatment agent. Master’s thesis, School of Biotechnology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Alba Nova University Centre, Stockholm, Sweden. 2013;23-45.
Bichi MH. A review of the applications of Moringa oleifera seeds extract in water treatment. Civil and Environmental Research. 2013;3(8):1-11.
Alo MN, Anyim, Elom M. Coagulation and antimicrobial activities of Moringa oleifera seed storage at 3C temperature in turbid water. Advances in Applied Science Research. 2012;3(2):887-894.
Betty T, Jacob K, Agbenorhevi V, Faustina D, Wireko-Manu EO. Watermelon seeds as food: Nutrient composition, phytochemicals and antioxidant activity. International Journal of Nutrition Food Science. 2016;5(2):139-144.
Kuma DD, Oruari AO, Olatunji TY. Basic amenities in developing countries; 2014.
Braide W, Odiong IJ, Oranusi S. Phytochemical and antibacterial properties of the seed of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). Prime Journal Microbiology Research. 2012;2(3):99-104.
Amusa FW, Bhanger MI. Analytical characterization of Moringa oleifera seed oil grown in temperate regions of Pakistan. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2003;51:6558-6563.
Edessa N, Geritu N, Mulugeta K. Microbiological assessment of drinking water with reference to diarrheagenic bacterial pathogens in Shashemane rural district, Ethiopia. African journal of microbiology research. 2007;11(6):254-263.
WHO. Global strategies: Health, Environmental and Development. Approached to drafting country-level strategies for human well being under Agenda 21. WHO document, Geneva Switzerland; 1993
WHO. Guidelines for drinking water quality, Geneva Switzerland, 3rd Edition. 2003;81-87.
Sharan C. Analysis of physicochemical parameters for water quality: A review. Bhilai Institute of Technology, Durg, India; 2011.
Pritchard M, Mkandawire T, Edmondson A, O’Neill JG, Kululanga G. Potential of using plant extracts for purification of shallow well water in Malawi. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth. 2009;34:799-805.
Eniola KIT, Obafemi DY, Awe SF, Yusuf II, Falaiye OA. Effects of containers and storage conditions on the bacteriological quality of borehole water. Nigerian Journal of Microbiology. 2007; 21:1578-1585.
Thompson J, Naika H, Payus C. Application of Moringa oleifera Plant as Water Purifier for Drinking Water Purposes. Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2003;17:268-275.
Orji MU, Ezenwaje EE, Anyaegbunam BC. Spatial appraisal of shallow well water pollution in Awka, Nigeria. Nigeria Journal Microbiology. 2006;20:1389-1394.
Sule IO, Agbabiaka TO, Akomolafe AV. Bacteriological quality of water stored exteriorly in storage tanks. Research Journal of Environmental Sciences. 2011; 5(6):603-610.
Sarsan N. Determination of Some Physicochemical Parameters and Some Heavy Metals in Boreholes from Fagge LGA of Kano Metropholis Kano State- Nigeria. World Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 2013;2(2):42-46.
Radha N, Siti H, Ali M, Homayoonfard M, Ali NJ, Rehan M, Sadef Y, Nizami, AS. Analysis of physiochemical parameters to evaluate the drinking water quality in the State of Perak, Malaysia. Journal of Chemistry. 2015;20:1-10
Sarsan N. Determination of some physicochemical parameters and some heavy metals in boreholes from fagge l.g.a of kano metropholis Kano State- Nigeria. World Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 2013; 2(2):42-46.
Packiyam R, Kananan S, Pachaiyappan S, Narayanan U. Effect of storage containers on coliforms in household drinking water. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 2016; 5(1):461-477.
Zand AD, Hoveidi H. Comparing aluminium sulfate and poly-aluminium chloride (PAC) performance in turbidity removal from synthetic water. Journal of Applied Biotechnology. 2015;2:287-292.
Tunggolou J, Payus C. Application of Moringa oleifera plant as water purifier for drinking water purposes. Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2017;17:268-275.
Sotheeswaran S, Vikashni N, Maata M, Koshy K. Water purification using moringa oleifera and other locally available seeds in fiji for heavy metal removal. International Journal of Applied Science and Technology. 2012;2(5):124-129.
Onwuchekwa EC, Ekeleme UG, Okereke HC, Onu-Osi O. Microbial load of domestic water sources treated with Moringa oleifera and Jatropha curcas seed powder. Public Health Journal. Accepted for publication. Article id: 5090; 2019.