In vitro Anti-Herpes simplex Type-1 Virus Evaluation of Extracts from Kenya Grown Pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium)

Main Article Content

Simon Alem
Festus M. Tolo
Nicholas Adipo
Peter G. Mwitari
Ngetich K. Japheth
Anselimo O. Makokha

Abstract

Objective: To evaluate in vitro anti-Herpes simplex type 1 activity of methanol and aqueous crude extracts of pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium) plant grown in Kenya.

Methods: Cytotoxic effect of methanol and aqueous extracts was determined on vero cells (African green monkey kidney cells) by MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-DiphenylTetrazolium Bromide) reduction colorimetric assay. Antiviral effect of pyrethrum extracts was evaluated; before (post-treatment infection) virus infection to the cells and after (pre-treatment infection) virus infection to cells.

Results: Methanol extract exhibited higher cytotoxicity of CC50 = 42.23 ± 0.320 µg/ml compared to aqueous extract of CC50 = 249 ± 8.4 µg/ml. Methanol extract exhibited a higher anti HSV-1 potency of IC50 = 1.69 µg/ml (TI = 24.99) than the aqueous extract of IC50 = 38.13 µg/ml (TI = 6.53) in the post-treatment infection evaluations. This might be due to its effect on cellular receptors preventing virus entry, while the aqueous extract exhibited higher virus inhibitory potency in the pre-treatment infection, of IC50 = 23.21 µg/ml (TI=10.73) compared to the methanol extract of IC50 = 11.18 µg/ml (TI =3.78), this effect could be due to its effect on some stage during HSV virus replication process.

Conclusions:  Crude methanol and aqueous extracts from Kenyan grown pyrethrum exhibited inhibition potency against HSV-1 in vitro on Vero cells.

Keywords:
Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium, anti HSV-1, cytotoxicity, in vitro, vero cells

Article Details

How to Cite
Alem, S., M. Tolo, F., Adipo, N., G. Mwitari, P., K. Japheth, N., & O. Makokha, A. (2016). In vitro Anti-Herpes simplex Type-1 Virus Evaluation of Extracts from Kenya Grown Pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium). European Journal of Medicinal Plants, 17(2), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.9734/EJMP/2016/28967
Section
Original Research Article